UA-85741865-1
A    Large    Human    Centrifuge    for    Exploitation    and    Exploration Research The   Human   Hypergravity   Habitat ,   H 3 ,   is   a   large,   ground   based,   rotating   platform   which   can house   human   subjects   for   periods   of   weeks   to   months   while   exposing   them   24/7   to   higher than   normal   gravity   levels.   The   dimensions   of   the   system   are   such   that   a   crew   of   at   least   8 persons   can   live,   work   and   leisure   in   the   closed   habitat   as   if   they   would   be   living   on   a   planet with higher than Earth’s 1 g. Long-duration   stay   in   microgravity   on   the   various   space   stations   demonstrated   how   gravity, or   the   lack   thereof,   has   an   impact   on   many   aspects   of   human   physiology:   loss   of   calcium from   the   bones,   suppression   of   the   immune   system,   reduced   cardiac   capacity   and   many other   changes   as   if   the   subjects   were   ageing   prematurely.   Hypergravity   research,   on   the other   hand,   has   shown   in   animal   studies   the   reverse   line   an   increased   bone   density   and loss   of   fat   mass.   This   inspired   the   idea   that   this   hyper-g   environment   may   be   useful   for research   into   countermeasures   for   modern-day   health   issues   like   obesity   and   osteoporosis in   our   ageing   population.   Another   spin-off   and   valorization   for   the   H 3    may   be   found   in   top sports,    where    training    in    this    environment    may    lead    to    increased    muscle    and    maybe cardiovascular   performance.   It   would   also   be   interesting   to   explore   the   possible   benefits   of long   duration   hypergravity   to   support   high   speed   aircraft   pilots   to   withstand   high   g-load maneuvers. Since   the   H 3    will   house   at   least   8   persons   for   periods   of   weeks   or   months   in   a   closed environment,   the   facility   is   a   suitable   test-bed   for   group   psychology   and   operations.   This closed   environment   with   the   need   to   support   human   life   also   provides   the   opportunity   to   test (biological)   life   support   systems   that   are   required   for   long   missions   to   Mars   or   on-surface systems    foreseen    for    the    Moon.   A    number    of    studies    imply    the    use    of    large    rotating spacecraft   when   going   on   long   duration   missions   like   to   Mars.   However,   very   little   is   known about   the   human   response   of   long   duration   rotation   in   large   diameter   systems.   The   H 3 ,   with a   projected   diameter   of   175   meter,   would   be   an   ideal   platform   to   explore   the   applicability   of such future spacecraft. The   H 3    cannot   only   be   used   to   explore   the   effects   of   moderate   hypergravity   (max.   2g)   but, also   that   of   lowered   gravity,   i.e .   when   the   rotation   is   stopped.   From   that   moment   on   the body   has   to   adapt   to   a   relatively   lower   g-level.   The   type   and   direction   of   physiological adaptations   will   be   similar   to   those   when   going   into   microgravity,   although   with   an   expected reduced amplitude. Finally,   when   the   H 3    is   built   as   a   disk-shape   structure   it   should   be   explored   to   use   the   facility as a very large Coriolis platform for atmospheric and oceanic mass transfer research. The   H 3    concept   has   emerged   from   a   Topical   Team   (TT)   study   supported   by   the   European Space   Agency,    ESA ,    where,    over    time    a    group    more    than    70    persons    have    become involved.   They   cover   disciplines   as   human   physiology   and   psychology,   engineering,   sports, public   outreach   /   education,   life   support,   operations   as   well   as   the   representatives   of   various European science organizations. Overview    of    both    Ground-Based    (spin-off)    and    Space    Exploration    (spin-in)    related application   areas   for   the   H 3 .   For   ground   based   these   are:   basic   research   in   gravitational physiology,   platform   for   contemporary   diseases   and   ageing,   valorization   for   athletics   and training   and   as   Coriolis   platform.   For   Space   Exploration   spin-in   one   can   use   the   H 3    for research    related    to    large    rotating    spacecraft,    gravity    transitions,    the    reduced    gravity paradigm,   group   psychology,   habitat   and   life   support   systems   research.   For   both   Ground Based   and   Exploration   oriented   activities   the   H 3    can   be   used   for   education   and   outreach programs. References: 1:   White   paper   after   "Artificial   Gravity   Workshop".   Chairs:   William   Paloski   and   John   B. Charles.   Ames   Research   Center,   February   19–20,   2014.   NASA   2014   NASA   NASA/TM- 2014-217394 . 2:   A   large   human   centrifuge   for   exploration   and   exploitation   research.   J.J.W.A.   van   Loon   et al. Annales Kinesiologiae ,  3,1, p. 107-121, 2012 3:   The   large   Radius   Human   Centrifuge   'A   Human   Hypergravity   Habitat,   H3.   Jack   J.W.A.   van Loon,   Floris   Wuyts,   et   al.   Paper   IAC-09.A1.2.3 ,    60th   IAC   Congress.   Deageon,   South-Korea, 12-16 Oct. 2009. 3:   Study   on   Artificial   gravity   research   to   enable   human   space   exploration.   Edit   L.   Young,   K. Yajima and W. Paloski. I nternational Academy of Astronautics   (IAA), Sept. 2009. 4:   The   Human   Centrifuge.   J.J.W.A.   van   Loon.   Microgravity   Sci.   Technol.   21   (1-2):203-207, 2009. Countries involved during this study phase of H 3 : Austria,    Belgium,    Canada,    Denmark,    France,    Germany,    Ireland,    Italy,    Japan,    Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, The Netherlands. Next Steps From   the   Topical   Team   study   we   gained   quite   a   good   insight   on   potential   for   the   various applications   of   such   an   H 3    facility   both   in   health   and   space. As   a   next   step   towards   actually achieving   the   realization   of   this   H 3    large   and   unique   rotating   system   is   that   we   need   set clear   and   detailed   user   requirements   for   an   H 3    infrastructure,   using   a   bottom-up   approach involving   scientists   from   different   disciplines,   sectors   and   countries,   and   define   the   minimum radius   for   the   H 3    facility   based   on   a   series   of   vestibular   tests.   These   requirements   will   be combined   and   form   the   basis   of   a   conceptual   engineering   design   and   cost   estimates   of   the H 3    facility.   Based   on   interests   and   an   analysis   of   other   research   infrastructures,   a   market analysis   of   the   envisioned   H 3    facility   would   also   help   to   identify   its   use.   Since   we   foresee   to have   the   H 3    as   a   large   and   international   research   infrastructure   we   also   need   to   address   a suitable   governance   structure   and   potential   for   funding   and   a   communication   plan   to   inform the   science   and   technology   community   and   various   other   stakeholder   that   can   make   use   of such   a   unique   and   novel   facility.   All   these   points   will   be   addressed   in   a   study   that   we proposed   for   the   European   Commission    via   grant   on   Large   Research   Infrastructures    by   a group    of    some    80    scientists    and    engineers    from    Europe,    USA,    Japan,    Canada    and Australia,   as   well   as   a   group   of   European   and   international   science   organizations:   European College   of   Sport   Science   ( ECSS ),   Federation   of   European   Nutrition   Societies   ( FENS ), European   Society   of   Movement   Analysis   in   Adults   and   Children   ( ESMAC ),   European   Low Gravity   Research   Association   ( ELGRA ),   European   Society   for   Muscle   Research   ( ESMR ), European   Association   for   the   Study   of   Obesity   ( EASO ),   European   Association   of   Social Psychology    ( EASP )    and    the    International    Society    for    Gravitational    Physiology    ( ISGP ), supporting   a   project   team   by   VU-University    in   Amsterdam   (NL),   TNO   Soesterberg   (NL),   Iv- Consult ,   Papendrecht   (NL),   Cimolai ,   Porcia   (IT),   Let’s   Involve ,   Copenhagen   (DN),   European Science Foundation  (ESF), Strasbourg (FR), and  Liquifer Systems Group , Vienna (AT).

The H

3

 Facility

© H

3

 Human Hypergravity Habitat

Historic Concepts Rotating space stations have been proposed starting with the pioneering work of the Russion visionnaire Konstantin  Tsiolkovskiy in the very early yeasr of the 20 th  century. Tsiolkovskiy proposed a rotating space system including trees and humans. Later, in 1928, the Kroatien Herman(n) Potočnik (also known as Hermann Noordung) published a work with his rotating concept. Nordungs’ rotating spacecraft. One of the best known rotating space station was the von Braun donut as presented in the early 1950 th . In this concept whole cities, lakes and forests were to be included in this rotating donut. von Braun’s rotating space station One of the more recent studies regarding rotating spacecraft is a the NASA Fire Baton concept. With such a system one can apply artificial gravity during a trip to Mars in order to mittigate or even eliminate the compromizing effects of microgravity (near weightlessness) during the voyage. the NASA Fire Baton spacecraft. Although engineering concepts have been developed, it is still not clear how a human being would behave in such large rotating platforms for long periods of time. Also, we do not know what gravity level would be sufficient when going to e.g. Mars. This is where the H3 concept might shed some light. Future Prospects From paired controlled long duration animal studies where e.g. rodents, hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit or chicken have been exposed to long duration chronic accelerations we know that fat mass decreases while bone density and cardiac capacity increases. Such observations deserve appropriate chronic hypergravity studies to see how these effects translate to humans. On the other hand it has been shown that human stem cells exposed to simulated microgravity are driven towards adipocytes compared to 1g controls while astronauts exposed to weightlessness for more than weeks show increased blood glucose and insulin concentrations suggesting insulin resistance. Obesity, contemporaty disease in current society The impact of gravity on glucose and insulin metabolism and related fat mass and obesity, makes hypergravity an interesting paradigm to explore especially in light of observations of increased obesity and diabetes in present-day communities as a result of escalated inactive and sedentary behavior in (mainly) the western society. Research using human chronic hypergravity, as foreseen for the H3 facility, will provide new insights to issues as insulin resistence and obesity.
© BERTE bvba / BETAQUA /QinetiQ / IFB GmbH
A   Large   Human   Centrifuge   for   Exploitation   and Exploration Research The    Human    Hypergravity    Habitat ,    H 3 ,    is    a    large,    ground    based, rotating   platform   which   can   house   human   subjects   for   periods   of weeks   to   months   while   exposing   them   24/7   to   higher   than   normal gravity   levels.   The   dimensions   of   the   system   are   such   that   a   crew   of at   least   8   persons   can   live,   work   and   leisure   in   the   closed   habitat   as if they would be living on a planet with higher than Earth’s 1 g. Long-duration    stay    in    microgravity    on    the    various    space    stations demonstrated   how   gravity,   or   the   lack   thereof,   has   an   impact   on many   aspects   of   human   physiology:   loss   of   calcium   from   the   bones, suppression   of   the   immune   system,   reduced   cardiac   capacity   and many   other   changes   as   if   the   subjects   were   ageing   prematurely. Hypergravity    research,    on    the    other    hand,    has    shown    in    animal studies   the   reverse   line   an   increased   bone   density   and   loss   of   fat mass.   This   inspired   the   idea   that   this   hyper-g   environment   may   be useful    for    research    into    countermeasures    for    modern-day    health issues    like    obesity    and    osteoporosis    in    our    ageing    population. Another   spin-off   and   valorization   for   the   H 3    may   be   found   in   top sports,   where   training   in   this   environment   may   lead   to   increased muscle   and   maybe   cardiovascular   performance.   It   would   also   be interesting     to     explore     the     possible     benefits     of     long     duration hypergravity   to   support   high   speed   aircraft   pilots   to   withstand   high   g- load maneuvers. Since   the   H 3    will   house   at   least   8   persons   for   periods   of   weeks   or months   in   a   closed   environment,   the   facility   is   a   suitable   test-bed   for group   psychology   and   operations.   This   closed   environment   with   the need   to   support   human   life   also   provides   the   opportunity   to   test (biological)   life   support   systems   that   are   required   for   long   missions   to Mars   or   on-surface   systems   foreseen   for   the   Moon.   A   number   of studies   imply   the   use   of   large   rotating   spacecraft   when   going   on   long duration   missions   like   to   Mars.   However,   very   little   is   known   about the    human    response    of    long    duration    rotation    in    large    diameter systems.   The   H 3 ,   with   a   projected   diameter   of   175   meter,   would   be an    ideal    platform    to    explore    the    applicability    of    such    future spacecraft. The   H 3    cannot   only   be   used   to   explore   the   effects   of   moderate hypergravity   (max.   2g)   but,   also   that   of   lowered   gravity,   i.e .   when   the rotation   is   stopped.   From   that   moment   on   the   body   has   to   adapt   to   a relatively    lower    g-level.    The    type    and    direction    of    physiological adaptations   will   be   similar   to   those   when   going   into   microgravity, although with an expected reduced amplitude. Finally,   when   the   H 3    is   built   as   a   disk-shape   structure   it   should   be explored    to    use    the    facility    as    a    very    large    Coriolis    platform    for atmospheric and oceanic mass transfer research. The    H 3     concept    has    emerged    from    a    Topical    Team    (TT)    study supported   by   the   European   Space Agency,   ESA ,   where,   over   time   a group   more   than   70   persons   have   become   involved.   They   cover disciplines    as    human    physiology    and    psychology,    engineering, sports,   public   outreach   /   education,   life   support,   operations   as   well as the representatives of various European science organizations. Overview   of   both   Ground-Based   (spin-off)   and   Space   Exploration (spin-in)   related   application   areas   for   the   H 3 .   For   ground   based   these are:     basic     research     in     gravitational     physiology,     platform     for contemporary    diseases    and    ageing,    valorization    for    athletics    and training   and   as   Coriolis   platform.   For   Space   Exploration   spin-in   one can   use   the   H 3    for   research   related   to   large   rotating   spacecraft, gravity   transitions,   the   reduced   gravity   paradigm,   group   psychology, habitat   and   life   support   systems   research.   For   both   Ground   Based and   Exploration   oriented   activities   the   H 3    can   be   used   for   education and outreach programs. References: 1:   White   paper   after   "Artificial   Gravity   Workshop".   Chairs:   William Paloski    and    John    B.    Charles.   Ames    Research    Center,    February 19–20, 2014. NASA 2014 NASA NASA/TM-2014-217394 . 2:    A    large    human    centrifuge    for    exploration    and    exploitation research.   J.J.W.A.   van   Loon   et   al.   Annales   Kinesiologiae ,    3,1,   p. 107-121, 2012 3:    The    large    Radius    Human    Centrifuge    'A    Human    Hypergravity Habitat,   H3.   Jack   J.W.A.   van   Loon,   Floris   Wuyts,   et   al.   Paper   IAC- 09.A1.2.3 ,    60th   IAC   Congress.   Deageon,   South-Korea,   12-16   Oct. 2009. 3:    Study    on    Artificial    gravity    research    to    enable    human    space exploration.   Edit   L.   Young,   K.   Yajima   and   W.   Paloski.   I nternational Academy of Astronautics   (IAA), Sept. 2009. 4:    The    Human    Centrifuge.    J.J.W.A.    van    Loon.    Microgravity    Sci. Technol. 21 (1-2):203-207, 2009. Countries involved during this study phase of H 3 : Austria,   Belgium,   Canada,   Denmark,   France,   Germany,   Ireland,   Italy, Japan,    Slovenia,    Sweden,    Switzerland,    United    Kingdom,    United States, The Netherlands. Next Steps From   the   Topical   Team   study   we   gained   quite   a   good   insight   on potential   for   the   various   applications   of   such   an   H 3    facility   both   in health   and   space.   As   a   next   step   towards   actually   achieving   the realization   of   this   H 3    large   and   unique   rotating   system   is   that   we need     set     clear     and     detailed     user     requirements     for     an     H 3   infrastructure,   using   a   bottom-up   approach   involving   scientists   from different   disciplines,   sectors   and   countries,   and   define   the   minimum radius   for   the   H 3    facility   based   on   a   series   of   vestibular   tests.   These requirements   will   be   combined   and   form   the   basis   of   a   conceptual engineering   design   and   cost   estimates   of   the   H 3    facility.   Based   on interests   and   an   analysis   of   other   research   infrastructures,   a   market analysis   of   the   envisioned   H 3    facility   would   also   help   to   identify   its use.   Since   we   foresee   to   have   the   H 3    as   a   large   and   international research     infrastructure     we     also     need     to     address     a     suitable governance   structure   and   potential   for   funding   and   a   communication plan   to   inform   the   science   and   technology   community   and   various other   stakeholder   that   can   make   use   of   such   a   unique   and   novel facility.    All    these    points    will    be    addressed    in    a    study    that    we proposed     for     the     European     Commission      via     grant     on     Large Research    Infrastructures     by    a    group    of    some    80    scientists    and engineers   from   Europe,   USA,   Japan,   Canada   and   Australia,   as   well as   a   group   of   European   and   international   science   organizations: European   College   of   Sport   Science   ( ECSS ),   Federation   of   European Nutrition   Societies   ( FENS ),   European   Society   of   Movement Analysis in   Adults   and   Children   ( ESMAC ),   European   Low   Gravity   Research Association    ( ELGRA ),    European    Society    for    Muscle    Research ( ESMR ),   European   Association   for   the   Study   of   Obesity   ( EASO ), European    Association     of     Social     Psychology     ( EASP )     and     the International   Society   for   Gravitational   Physiology   ( ISGP ),   supporting a     project     team     by     VU-University      in     Amsterdam     (NL),     TNO Soesterberg    (NL),    Iv-Consult ,    Papendrecht    (NL),    Cimolai ,    Porcia (IT),   Let’s   Involve ,   Copenhagen   (DN),   European   Science   Foundation   (ESF), Strasbourg (FR), and  Liquifer Systems Group , Vienna (AT).

The H

3

 Facility

© H

3

 Human Hypergravity Habitat 

Historic Concepts Rotating space stations have been proposed starting with the pioneering work of the Russion visionnaire Konstantin  Tsiolkovskiy in the very early yeasr of the 20 th  century. Tsiolkovskiy proposed a rotating space system including trees and humans. Later, in 1928, the Kroatien Herman(n) Potočnik (also known as Hermann Noordung) published a work with his rotating concept. Nordungs’ rotating spacecraft. One of the best known rotating space station was the von Braun donut as presented in the early 1950 th . In this concept whole cities, lakes and forests were to be included in this rotating donut. von Braun’s rotating space station One of the more recent studies regarding rotating spacecraft is a the NASA Fire Baton concept. With such a system one can apply artificial gravity during a trip to Mars in order to mittigate or even eliminate the compromizing effects of microgravity (near weightlessness) during the voyage. the NASA Fire Baton spacecraft. Although engineering concepts have been developed, it is still not clear how a human being would behave in such large rotating platforms for long periods of time. Also, we do not know what gravity level would be sufficient when going to e.g. Mars. This is where the H3 concept might shed some light. Future Prospects From paired controlled long duration animal studies where e.g. rodents, hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit or chicken have been exposed to long duration chronic accelerations we know that fat mass decreases while bone density and cardiac capacity increases. Such observations deserve appropriate chronic hypergravity studies to see how these effects translate to humans. On the other hand it has been shown that human stem cells exposed to simulated microgravity are driven towards adipocytes compared to 1g controls while astronauts exposed to weightlessness for more than weeks show increased blood glucose and insulin concentrations suggesting insulin resistance. Obesity, contemporaty disease in current society The impact of gravity on glucose and insulin metabolism and related fat mass and obesity, makes hypergravity an interesting paradigm to explore especially in light of observations of increased obesity and diabetes in present-day communities as a result of escalated inactive and sedentary behavior in (mainly) the western society. Research using human chronic hypergravity, as foreseen for the H3 facility, will provide new insights to issues as insulin resistence and obesity.